This shows a Navajo woman using a simple dye bucket for to bundle of wool she is working with. The technique is old, and the photo could have been taken in the 19th century. This colored wool will eventually be combined with other colors in clothes and rugs, as shown behind the dyer.
The caption states: Dyeing wool for Navajo Indian Rugs, Gallup, New Mexico
The picture likely dates from the 1940s.